Source code for boltons.gcutils

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""The Python Garbage Collector (`GC`_) doesn't usually get too much
attention, probably because:

  - Python's `reference counting`_ effectively handles the vast majority of
    unused objects
  - People are slowly learning to avoid implementing `object.__del__()`_
  - The collection itself strikes a good balance between simplicity and
    power (`tunable generation sizes`_)
  - The collector itself is fast and rarely the cause of long pauses
    associated with GC in other runtimes

Even so, for many applications, the time will come when the developer
will need to track down:

  - Circular references
  - Misbehaving objects (locks, ``__del__()``)
  - Memory leaks
  - Or just ways to shave off a couple percent of execution time

Thanks to the :mod:`gc` module, the GC is a well-instrumented entry
point for exactly these tasks, and ``gcutils`` aims to facilitate it

.. _GC:
.. _reference counting:
.. _object.__del__():
.. _tunable generation sizes:
# TODO: type survey

from __future__ import print_function

import gc
import sys

__all__ = ['get_all', 'GCToggler', 'toggle_gc', 'toggle_gc_postcollect']

[docs]def get_all(type_obj, include_subtypes=True): """Get a list containing all instances of a given type. This will work for the vast majority of types out there. >>> class Ratking(object): pass >>> wiki, hak, sport = Ratking(), Ratking(), Ratking() >>> len(get_all(Ratking)) 3 However, there are some exceptions. For example, ``get_all(bool)`` returns an empty list because ``True`` and ``False`` are themselves built-in and not tracked. >>> get_all(bool) [] Still, it's not hard to see how this functionality can be used to find all instances of a leaking type and track them down further using :func:`gc.get_referrers` and :func:`gc.get_referents`. ``get_all()`` is optimized such that getting instances of user-created types is quite fast. Setting *include_subtypes* to ``False`` will further increase performance in cases where instances of subtypes aren't required. .. note:: There are no guarantees about the state of objects returned by ``get_all()``, especially in concurrent environments. For instance, it is possible for an object to be in the middle of executing its ``__init__()`` and be only partially constructed. """ # TODO: old-style classes if not isinstance(type_obj, type): raise TypeError('expected a type, not %r' % type_obj) try: type_is_tracked = gc.is_tracked(type_obj) except AttributeError: type_is_tracked = False # Python 2.6 and below don't get the speedup if type_is_tracked: to_check = gc.get_referrers(type_obj) else: to_check = gc.get_objects() if include_subtypes: ret = [x for x in to_check if isinstance(x, type_obj)] else: ret = [x for x in to_check if type(x) is type_obj] return ret
_IS_PYPY = '__pypy__' in sys.builtin_module_names if _IS_PYPY: # pypy's gc is just different, y'all del get_all
[docs]class GCToggler(object): """The ``GCToggler`` is a context-manager that allows one to safely take more control of your garbage collection schedule. Anecdotal experience says certain object-creation-heavy tasks see speedups of around 10% by simply doing one explicit collection at the very end, especially if most of the objects will stay resident. Two GCTogglers are already present in the ``gcutils`` module: - :data:`toggle_gc` simply turns off GC at context entrance, and re-enables at exit - :data:`toggle_gc_postcollect` does the same, but triggers an explicit collection after re-enabling. >>> with toggle_gc: ... x = [object() for i in range(1000)] Between those two instances, the ``GCToggler`` type probably won't be used much directly, but is documented for inheritance purposes. """ def __init__(self, postcollect=False): self.postcollect = postcollect def __enter__(self): gc.disable() def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb): gc.enable() if self.postcollect: gc.collect()
toggle_gc = GCToggler() """A context manager for disabling GC for a code block. See :class:`GCToggler` for more details.""" toggle_gc_postcollect = GCToggler(postcollect=True) """A context manager for disabling GC for a code block, and collecting before re-enabling. See :class:`GCToggler` for more details."""